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Sudan

Legislation

  • Mineral Wealth and Mining (Development) Act 2015
  • Environmental Protection Act 2001

Regulatory Risk Rating

Critical
Regulatory Risk

Regulatory Corruption Risk

Extremely High
Regulatory Corruption Risk

Corruption Exposure Risk

Extremely High
Corruption Exposure Risk
Regulatory Risk Rating Factors Risk Level
First Come / First Serve Subscribe
Application Criteria Subscribe
Duration Subscribe
Right to Renew Subscribe
Competing Licences Subscribe
Mineral Coverage Subscribe
Right to Mine Subscribe
Criteria for Mining Rights Subscribe
Tenure Subscribe
Surface Rights Subscribe
Government Take Subscribe
Transfer Rights Subscribe
Change of Control Subscribe
EIA Process Subscribe
Power to Revoke Subscribe
Age of Legislation Subscribe
Other Factors Subscribe

A very brave investor on the hunt for new opportunities in unexplored realms may find some appeal in the fact that there isn’t much of a legal framework at all in Sudan. That same investor may relish the opportunity to negotiate an entirely separate agreement, free from the common restraint that more comprehensive laws can include prohibiting terms of any agreement from being contrary to the terms of the law. Yet such agreement will need to be utterly airtight in order to protect against the level of legal risk faced in Sudan. So, at the very minimum that same investor will need a firm negotiation strategy, smart legal minds and favourable relationships with government to build a project capable of being financed and achieving success.

Contents

Legislation

  • Mineral Wealth and Mining (Development) Act 2015
  • Environmental Protection Act 2001

Regulatory Risk Rating

Critical
Regulatory Risk

Regulatory Corruption Risk

Extremely High
Regulatory Corruption Risk

Corruption Exposure Risk

Extremely High
Corruption Exposure Risk
Regulatory Risk Rating Factors Risk Level
First Come / First Serve Subscribe
Application Criteria Subscribe
Duration Subscribe
Right to Renew Subscribe
Competing Licences Subscribe
Mineral Coverage Subscribe
Right to Mine Subscribe
Criteria for Mining Rights Subscribe
Tenure Subscribe
Surface Rights Subscribe
Government Take Subscribe
Transfer Rights Subscribe
Change of Control Subscribe
EIA Process Subscribe
Power to Revoke Subscribe
Age of Legislation Subscribe
Other Factors Subscribe

Overview

The Nubians were extracting gold and base metals in Sudan some 3000 years ago. Today, gold production and refining remain the main output from Sudan’s mining sector – with the country noted as one of the largest gold producers in Africa. Agriculture and mining are expected to be main drivers of growth for the economy, with the mining sector estimated to account for nearly 10% of GDP at the present time.  Agriculture accounts for nearly 80% of employment, though employment is rising in the mining sector and estimates suggest there are also one million active artisanal miners in the country.

As noted, the mining sector is dominated by gold production, though there is some notable production of cement and oil. That being said, three quarters of Sudan’s oil production was lost with the secession of South Sudan in 2011. The remainder of this vast geographical country remains largely unexplored; the Nubian Shield does offer high prospectivity potential for gold and base metal resources and several Concession Agreements were signed in 2021 with blocks in this region. With the lifting of a 20-year embargo and associated sanctions by the United States in 2017, the Sudanese economy has become a viable destination for international investments and the Government is keen to attract mining companies. Concerns do remain about political risk in the country, with a Transitional Government recently put in place in 2020. Political violence also remains a concern, particularly in the Darfur region. Sudan has underdeveloped infrastructure, a weak banking system, high youth unemployment rates, food security problems and extensive human rights issues. Corruption and governance issues are also noted as being potentially problematic.    

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